Molecular and Applied Microbiology Exams 2000 – BBS 3010 and 3010L
Total Marks allocated: 120
Total time Allocated: 1.30 hrs
Answer all 5 questions:
Question 1. Answer all the following multiple choice questions (13 marks)
A. Slow evolutionary clocks.
B. Fast evolutionary clocks.
C. Evolutionary clocks that tend to move at about the same pace
as the evolutionary clocks of other organisms.
D. Very erratic evolutionary clocks.
2. The cytoplasmic proteins of Halobacterium are
A. Highly acidic.
B. Highly basic.
C. Generally neutral.
D. Variable, depending on the species.
A. Produce methane as a part of their energy metabolism.
B. Utilize methane as an energy source.
C. Process and store methane as a part of their repair mechanism.
D.Do none of the above.
4. Which of the following is not a methanogenic substrate?
A. CO2-type substrates
B. Methyl substrates
D. All of the above are methanogenic substrates.
5. _______________________ is a strict anaerobe with an optimum
temperature of 105°C that grows chemolithotrophically on H2 with so
as an electron receptor or chemoorganotrophically on complex
mixtures of organic compounds.
6. One factor which seems to aid in maintaining heat resistance is that
dibiphytanyl tetraether lipids form
A. A covalently bonded monolayer cytoplasmic membrane.
B. An interlocking bilayer cytoplasmic membrane.
C. An interlocking lattice with the cell wall.
D. A pseudo-membrane immediately inside the cytoplasmic membrane.
7.Identification of the three lines of descent, Bacteria, Archaea, and
Eukarya, has come about primarily as a result of
A. Advanced methods of morphological examination.
B. Biochemical assays.
C. Analyses of metabolic pathways.
D. Nucleic acid sequencing studies.
8.Lateral gene transfer
A. Occurs between related species.
B. Occurs between domains.
C. Was prevalent before the primary lines of descent were formed.
D. Is still an unknown factor in setting up phylogenetic trees.
9.The eukaryotic functional equivalent of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA is the
A. 5S rRNA.
B. 16S rRNA (the same as the prokaryotic 16S rRNA).
C. 18S rRNA.
D. 23S rRNA.
10. Protein synthesis studies using Sulfolobus (Archaea), yeast (Eukarya), and
Escherichia coli (Bacteria) indicate the ribosomal proteins of and are
more closely related to each other than they are to the ribosomal proteins
A. Archaea / Bacteria / Eukarya
B. Archaea / Eukarya / Bacteria
C. Bacteria / Eukarya / Archaea
D. None of the above because the studies indicate these proteins all seem
to be similar.
11.The genus found closest to the Archaea/Eukarya divergence point is
D. An as yet unidentified cyanobacteria
12.Although the microsporidia and the diplomonads are eukaryotic, they lack
B. A true nucleus.
C. Identifiable ribosomes.
D. All of the above
13.Heat stable proteins tend to have which probably leads to more
acids on the surface.
acids on the surface.
Question 2. State true or false (7 marks)
an ongoing process.
Question 3. Answer the following in brief: (20 marks)
Organism 1: AGGUACGUUA
Organism 2: UGCCACGGUU
Organism 3: AGGUACGGUA
than proteins like ferrodoxin, cytochromes or specific proteins?
Question 4. Answer any ONE question from the following three: (40 marks)
a) Briefly describe the different strategies available for obtaining a complete microbial genome sequence (ie. ordered clone approach, shotgun approach). Discuss one experimental approach in more detail including library construction, sequencing, gap filling etc.
b) Outline the processes involved in microbial genome sequence annotation. Discuss possible approaches for characterising predicted genes of unknown function.
c) Horizontal transfer is an important evolutionary process in microorganisms – discuss how data obtained from microbial genome sequences has improved our knowledge of this process. Give a specific example of a sequenced microbial genome that appears to contain significant levels of horizontally transferred genes.
Question 5 Answer any ONE question from the following two: (40 marks)
(i) a primary metabolite and
(ii) a secondary metabolite.